Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic, long-lasting mental health disorder in which a person suffers from uncontrollable and recurring thoughts. It is normal if we sometimes check once or twice whether we have forgotten to close the door, but when a person is suffering from OCD, he or she is likely to check the things excessively, undergo through certain thoughts repeatedly(obsession) or even perform some routine activities repeatedly(compulsion).
Risk Factors for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ( OCD ): Introduction, Risk Factors, Sign & Treatment
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ( OCD ): Introduction, Risk Factors, Sign & Treatment is a common disorder which could affect adult, adolescent and even children. The patient is diagnosed with the disorder usually at the age of 19 but there is the possibility to suffer even after the age of 35. The main cause of the disorder is unknown, however, there are some of its risk factors as mentioned below:
A person, whose first-degree relatives (like a parent, sibling or child) are patient of OCD, is at a higher risk for developing OCD. The risk is even higher among people if their first-degree relative had developed the disorder as a child or teen. It is also found that the identical twins are affected than non-identical twins. There are lots of research going on to determine the relationship between genetics and OCD.
- Brain Structure and Functioning
Some studies show the differences in the frontal cortex and subcortical structures of the brain in patients with OCD. This implies that there is a linkage between the OCD symptoms and abnormalities in certain parts of the brain, but the connection is ambiguous. It will be really helpful in determined if it is possible to understand the causes.
The people who had experienced some form of physical or sexual abuse in childhood or other trauma have increased the risk of becoming the victim of OCD. Similarly, if a child gets infected with the streptococcal infection followed by Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders, then the children may develop OCD.
Signs and Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
The people who are OCD patient are likely to suffer from symptoms of obsession or compulsion or even both. Those people are they have thoughts and behaviors that may cause tremendous distress, get late every time and interfere with others love relationship.
Some of the common obsessive thoughts among the patient are:
- The patient has fear of contaminated by germs or dirt and also fear of contaminating others.
- They fear of losing control and harming yourself or others.
- There is the arousal of unwanted forbidden thoughts that involves sex, religion and harming other.
- They fear of losing their essential things.
- They have the idea that everything must be on right order and symmetry.
Compulsive behaviors in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
The common compulsive behaviors in OCD are:
- The patients double-check the things like locks, appliances, and switches excessively.
- They repeatedly check in on loved ones to make sure they are safe.
- Count, tap, repeat some words or do other senseless things to reduce their anxiety.
- Spending a lot of time in cleaning stuff.
- The prays excessively or get engaged in rituals due to religious fear.
- They often accumulate old junk.
Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Some drugs like Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are helpful to reduce OCD symptoms. The medication starts to work from 8 to 12 weeks. Some patients start to improve really fast while in some may not show any response to the medication.
Psychotherapy is one of the effective treatment for adults and children suffering from OCD. Some of the types of psychotherapy helpful for a patient of OCD are cognitive behavior therapy(CBT), habit reversal training, Exposure and Response Prevention and so on.
Further, then treatment, it is important to provide love and support to the patient with OCD. The ways of providing psychological support are as follow:
- We need to help the OCD patient rather than criticising them. Those negative criticisms regarding their symptoms and behaviors can make the situation of the patient more vulnerable. A calm environment can be helpful to improve their situation.
- We should not scold them or tend to stop performing cleaning activities or ritual activities. The pressure which we put on them will worsen their behavior.
- We should always try to find the humor. If we laugh together with them over the funny side, the patient can be more detached from the symptoms.
- We need to keep the communication positive and clear.