Alzheimer’s disease: Stages, Diagnosis, Symptoms, & Treatment


Alzheimer’s disease may be a progressive, disorder that attacks the brain’s nerve cells, or neurons, leading to loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioural changes. These neurons that turn out the brain chemical, or neurochemical, neurotransmitter break connections with different nerve cells and ultimately die. For example, short-term memory fails when Alzheimer’s disease initial destroys nerve cells within the hippocampus, and language skills and judgment decline once neurons die within the cerebral cortex. Two kinds of abnormal lesions clog the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease: Beta-amyloid plaques—sticky clumps of supermolecule fragments and cellular material that form outside and around neurons; and neurofibrillary tangles—insoluble twisted fibres composed mostly of the protein letter that builds up within nerve cells. Though these structures are hallmarks of the disease, scientists are unclear whether or not they cause it or a byproduct of it. Alzheimer’s disease is that the most common reason for dementia, or loss of intellectual function, among people aged sixty-five and older.



Stage of Alzheimer’s Disease

Mild stage of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Forget words or misplace objects
  • Forget one thing they just read
  • Raise identical question over and over
  • Have increasing bother preparing or organizing
  • Not bear in mind names once meeting new people

Moderate stage of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Increased cognitive state and confusion
  • Problems recognizing family and friends
  • Continuously continuance stories, favourite needs(e.g., foods, places, songs, etc.), or motions
  • Decreased ability to perform complicated tasks(e.g., planning dinner) or handle personal finances (e.g., paying bills)
  • Lack of concern for hygiene and look
  • Requiring help in selecting correct consumer goods to wear for the day, season, or occasion

Severe stage of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Recognize faces, however, forget names
  • Mistake a person for somebody else
  • Delusions—such as thinking he/she has to attend work — might set in, albeit he/she no longer includes a job
  • there’s a powerful need for holding one thing close for tactile stimulation, nurturing, fellowship and comfort
  • Basic skills like eating, walking, and sitting up fade throughout this period; the individual might not recognize once he’s thirsty or hungry and can like help with all basic activities of daily living.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Symptoms are divided into two categories: psychological feature, or intellectual, and psychiatric.
  • Differentiating them is very important in order that behavioral problems that are caused by loss of psychological feature functioning don’t seem to be treated with antipsychotics or anti-anxiety medications.
  • Cognitive, or intellectual, symptoms are memory loss, aphasia, apraxia and agnosia (the four As of Alzheimer’s).
  • Amnesia is defined as loss of memory, or the lack to recollect facts or events. We’ve got 2 kinds of memories: the short-term (recent, new) and long-term (remote, old) reminiscences. Short-term memory is programmed in an exceedingly a part of the brain referred to as the temporal lobe, whereas long-term memory is kept throughout intensive nerve cell networks within the temporal and parietal lobes. In Alzheimer’s disease, short-term memory storage is broken first.
  • Aphasia is that the inability to communicate effectively. The loss of ability to talk and write is named expressive aphasia. An individual could forget words he has learned and can have an increasing problem with communication. With receptive aphasia, a private could also be unable perceive to know to grasp} spoken or written words or might read and not understand a word of what’s read. Generally, an individual pretends to know and even nods in agreement; this is often to cover-up aphasia. Though people might not understand words and grammar, they will still understand non-verbal behavior, i.e., smiling.
  • Apraxia is that the inability to try and do pre-programmed motor tasks or to perform activities of daily living like brushing teeth and dressing. An individual might forget all motor skills learned during development. Sophisticated motor skills that need in-depth learning, like job-related skills, are the primary functions that become impaired. A lot of natural functions like chew, swallowing and walking are lost in the last stages of the illness.
  • Agnosia is a person’s inability to properly interpret signals from their five senses. People with Alzheimer’s disease might not acknowledge familiar individuals and objects. A typical however usually unrecognized agnosia is that the inability to appropriately understand visceral, or internal, info like a full bladder or chest pain.
  • Major psychiatric symptoms include personality changes, depression, hallucinations, and delusions.
  • Personality changes will become evident in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Signs include irritability, apathy, withdrawal, and isolation.
  • People might show symptoms of depression at any stage of the illness. Depression is treatable, even in the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations and delusions that typically occur within the middle stage. Hallucinations usually are auditory and/or visual, and sensory impairments, like hearing loss or poor eyesight, tend to extend hallucinations within the aged.
  • Hallucinations and delusions are terribly upsetting to the person with the illness. Common reactions are feelings of worry, anxiety, and paranoia, in addition to agitation, aggression, and verbal outbursts.
  • People with psychiatric symptoms tend to exhibit a lot of activity issues than those while not these symptoms. It’s vital to acknowledge these symptoms in order that applicable medications are prescribed and safety precautions are taken.
  • Psychotic symptoms will typically be reduced through the carefully supervised use of medicines.


  • Clinicians will currently diagnose Alzheimer’s disease with up to ninety percent accuracy. However, it will only be confirmed by an autopsy, throughout that pathologists explore for the disease’s characteristic plaques and tangles in brain tissue.
  • Clinicians will diagnose “probable” Alzheimer’s disease by taking a whole medical record and conducting science laboratory tests, a physical examination, brain scans and neuropsychological tests that gauge memory, attention, language skills, and problem-solving skills.
  • Correct diagnosis is vital since there are dozens of alternative causes of memory issues. Some memory issues will be without delay treated, like those caused by vitamin deficiencies or thyroid issues. Alternative memory issues may result from causes that aren’t presently reversible, like Alzheimer’s.
  • The earlier and correct identification of “probable” Alzheimer’s is formed, the better it’s to manage symptoms and arrange for the future.


Right now, there’s no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Once someone starts showing signs – memory loss and issues with learning, judgment, communication, and lifestyle — there aren’t any treatments which will stop or reverse them. But there are medicines which will ease a number of the symptoms in some individuals. They’ll slow down however quickly the illness gets worse, and facilitate the brain work higher for extended. It’s necessary to speak to your doctor regarding that choice may match best for you.

Which medication can help?

Some medicine curbs the breakdown of a chemical within the brain, known as acetylcholine, that’s vital for memory and learning. They’ll prevent how fast symptoms aggravate for concerning half people that take them. The impact lasts for a restricted time, on the average half-dozen to twelve months. Common aspect effects are typically gentle for these medications and embrace symptom, vomiting and nausea, fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetency, and weight loss. There is 3 medicine of this type donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

  • Aricept is that the only treatment approved by the authority for all stages of Alzheimer’s disease: gentle, moderate, and severe. You’ll be able to take it as a pill that you just swallow or that dissolves in your mouth.
  • Razadyne (formerly referred to as Reminyl) is additionally for gentle to moderate Alzheimer’s. You’ll be able to get wise as a pill that works directly, a capsule that offers off the drugs slowly, and in liquid forms.
  • Exelon is for those who have gentle to moderate Alzheimer’s. You’ll be able to wear a skin patch that has the drug or take it in capsules and in liquid kind.
  • Memantine (Namenda) treats moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. It works by changing the quantity of a brain chemical referred to as glutamate that plays a job in learning and memory. Brain cells in people with Alzheimer’s unwellness offer off an excessive amount of glutamate. Namenda keeps the amount of that chemical under control. It should improve however well the brain works and the way well some individuals will do everyday tasks. The drug may fit even higher after you take it with Aricept, Exelon, or Razadyne. Namenda’s side effects include tiredness, dizziness, confusion, constipation, and headache.
  • Namzaric. This drug could be a mixture of Namenda and Aricept. It is best for individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s World Health Organization already take the 2 medication one by one.

Scientists are searching for new treatments for Alzheimer’s in clinical trials. These studies take a look at new medication to visualize if they’ll slow the illness from obtaining worse or improve memory issues or different symptoms. They’re additionally searching for different ways in which on the far side medication to treat the illness, like an Alzheimer’s vaccine.

Many inhabited hoped that supplements like vitamin e, coenzyme Q10, coral calcium, and huperzine A might work well as treatments for the illness. But so far, there’s no proof that they need any result. The results of studies on omega-3 fatty acids are mixed, and scientists do additional analysis to appear into their effects on Alzheimer’s. Scientists still search for ways in which to diagnose Alzheimer’s earlier, before symptoms seem, that might facilitate individuals begin treatment sooner.


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